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Related processes

Please find information, research projects and publications regarding related processes in this section.

Related processes

Projects

  • Maiatz - Maiatz Simulform (2008-2010), Italy:

    The project consists in the transference of the results of research activities carried out in the domain of engineering and university in the project Virtual Intelligent Forging – CA supported by EU Sixth Framework Programme focused in the creation of a knowledge community in forging production technologies. The results of VIF CA that are applied and adapted to develop the main product of MAIATZ SIMULFORM: and specific training program on “Numerical 3D Simulation Technologies on Cold Forming Process”, supported by IT didactical materials. It is oriented to: VET trainees and Workers of Metal Mechanic Branch, and Unemployed workers willing to improve their employability in this Labour Market.
  • WBC-net - Virtual Manufacturing Network. Fostering an Integration of the Knowledge Triangle (2008-2010), Italy:

    The project aims at supporting actions at national and regional levels in Serbia trough the development of clusters and networks, enhancing pan-European cooperation among SMEs.
  • Bulk metal forming at elevated temperatures – Extrusion of steel between room temperature and 500°C, Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) University of Stuttgart / Germany – Status report July 2013:

    Metal forming of coated aluminum and steel raw material within temperature range below 500 °C provides numerous advantages compared to established cold and warm forming processes under economic conditions. Such temperature range below blue brittleness between 300 °C and 500 °C for e.g. steel alloys, which is characterised by a high ductility and low yield stress, in this project is of particular interest. In addition to an increase of formability forming at elevated temperatures a notice­able decrease of tool load and an increase of tool life time respectively is observed. To gain a deeper understanding of forming processes at elevated temperatures this study is based on the three work packages: tribology, technological material properties and process investigations. End of work might be expected end of year 2013.

Publications

  • Liang YX, Li XF, Zuo DW, et al. Dynamic simulation for a vibration processing equipment of internal thread formed by cold extrusion based on low frequency vibration, Journal of Vibration and Shock, 2012, 31(22): 143-146 (in Chinese).                                                   
  •  Liang YX, Li XF, Zuo DW, et al. Experimental research on internal thread formation cold extrusion based on low frequency vibration. Acts Aeronautics et Astronautics Sinica, 2013, 34(2): 442-450 (in Chinese).   
  • Liewald, M.; et al.: Identification of innovative process chains for cold forging. In: Liewald, M. (Edit.), New Developments in Forging Technology, MAT INFO Werkstoffinformationsgesellschaft mbH, Frankfurt/M., 2013, pp. 1-32                                                   
  • Liewald, M.; Fritsching, U.; Hajyheydari, E.: Ecoforge – Resource efficient process chains for high performance components. In: Liewald, M. (Edit.), New Developments in Forging Technology, MAT INFO Werkstoffinformationsgesellschaft mbH, Frankfurt/M., 2013, pp. 107-134                                                   

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Surface treatment

Projects

  • Ultrasonic cold forging technology (UCFT),  China University of Geosciences (Beijing), China:

    To promote the formation and growth of nitride layer, a befitting surface nano-crystallization process was introduced as a pre-treatment of nitriding, and an optimized nitriding temperature was investigated. The diffusion of nitrogen and the formation of nitrides were markedly improved by UCFT pre-treatment. A thicker and harder nitrided layer was formed at a high nitriding temperature. It is an optimized process to be pre-treated by UCFT and nitriding at 520 °C for 4 h.

  • Environmentally friendly process chains in cold forging by abdication of zinc phosphate conversion layers, Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines (PtU) Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany:

    Cold forging processes provide a high dimensional accuracy and a good material utilization. Due to high tribological loads, which occur during forming, complex separation and lubrication layers are used to prevent wear and failure of expensive forming tools. Hence, zinc phosphate coatings as separation layers and soap as a lubricant are used for the forging of steel, though the application and use of zinc phosphate coatings come along with several environmentally drawbacks. Objective of this research project is to gather basic knowledge for the zinc phosphate-free, multistage cold forging of billets. Within this project new single layer lubricants are developed and used for cold bulk metal forming of steel. Therefore, the functionality of zinc phosphate free lubricants will be investigated with respect to the part’s surface structure. The use of fast applicable single layer lubricants permits innovative process sequences. Furthermore, an inline-surface treatment interlinked with a multistage forming process of billets will be realized within this project. In combination with a more environmentally benign manufacturing, shorter treatment times, lower buffer volumes and a higher grade of flexibility will be achieved. (Contact: Dipl.-Ing. Sebastian Zang)

Publications 

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Hot forging

Projects

     

     


    Publications

    • BRUSCHI S., GHIOTTI A., Distortions induced in turbine blades by hot forging and cooling, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 48/7-8, 761-767, 2008.                                                   
    • GAGLIARDI F., FILICE L., UMBRELLO D., SHIVPURI R., Forging of Metallic Foams to Reproduce Biomechanical Components, Material Science and Engineering – A, Vol. 480/1-2, pp. 510-516.                                               

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    Warm forging

    Projects

    • Influence of perlite spheroidization on the flow stress and the formability of carbon steels, Institute for Metal Forming (IMF) TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:


      The study had both a process- and a material-related aim. The process-related aim was to determine the influence of varying finish rolling temperatures before annealing, the soft annealing from the rolling heat, the varied cooling rate on isothermal holding temperature, the soft annealing with perlite deformation and the soft annealing with a constant external tensile stress on the reduction of forming forces and increase the formability. The material- related aim was to determine the influence of material conditions on the forming force and the formability. One of the most important findings is that the temporal evolution of the material properties should be considered differently. The process of perlite spheroidization is a time-dependent and time-consuming process. The result (a fully spheroidized perlite in the microstructure) is only reached after several hours of annealing. On the other hand, the characteristic changes in the mechanical properties are produced much faster. Only half an hour at the hold annealing temperature leads to a significant reduction of yield strength and an increase of fracture strain. Mostly the maximum achievable changes in properties are reached after only one hour of the holding at the annealing temperature, although the microstructure is not equivalent to a spheroidized annealed condition. Because these results were obtained under laboratory conditions, the current studies present a review of the results achieved under operational conditions on the example of the steel 23MnB4 in Saarstahl AG and RUIA. The aim is a large-scale optimization of annealing parameters with respect to cost reduction and an evaluation of new parameters for the annealing process. Deformation at elevated temperatures and warm forging with the aim of reducing the forming force and extending  the tool life. The deformation at elevated temperatures and in the warm forging has a series of benefits in comparison with the cold-forming. They result from lower flow stress due to the increasing temperature. Metals and their alloys also exhibit higher formability with increasing temperature. The increase in temperature is not necessarily significant, so that conventional tools in the temperature range of forming of up to 400° C can still be used. A great impact for forming technology can be expected primarily for high-strength steels with a tensile strength of 700 to 1000 MPa without further heat treatment (quenching and tempering). In this way it is possible to extend the life of the forming tools and to improve dimensional accuracy with a comparable surface finish. Furthermore, additional operations such as the straightening of long parts (e.g. cylinder head bolts) can be eliminated. The above mentioned advantages of deformation at elevated temperatures or in the temperature range of warm forging apply only if the mechanical properties of the material during and after the deformation are not affected. The investigations are carried out from the class low carbon bainitic steels using 7MnB8.

    • Combined casting-forging process by using of an aluminium wrought alloy, Institute for Metal Forming (IMF) TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:

      Due to the continuous development in the automotive industry, where high performance combined with maximum comfort and safety at low car body weight are the primary goals, lightweight construction gains increasing importance. Materials with light weight, high strength and toughness are sought for application. Against this background the material aluminium and its alloys become highly attractive to manufacturers. There are mainly two ways of forming the metal materials: casting or forming. Apart from the substitution of one method by the other there are also (many) examples that combine casting and forging processes in practice. This allows using the advantages of both methods, shortening the process chains and saving energy and resources at the same time. Furthermore, the form flexibility can be increased and the product quality can be improved. For a better process efficiency there should be a direct transition from casting to forging so that the heat loss is reduced and no additional heat treatment between these operations is necessary. There are processes which allow producing the final parts by casting and forging from one single heat. The application of such processes requires materials that have both good casting and forging properties. The Institute for Metal Forming of TU Freiberg works intensively to develop combined casting-forging technologies for lightweight aluminium parts. A technological chain for this coupled process followed by precipitation hardening heat treatment has already been developed. Heat treatable aluminium cast and wrought alloys with 1–7% silicon were used. The optimal cast, forging and hardening properties were achieved by varying the silicon content. This technology with high energy efficiency allows the production of durable light weight parts from aluminium alloys while the mechanical properties of the final parts are equal or even better compared to the conventional processes.

    • Hotgauge - Measurement of complex and freeform shaped parts at elevated temperature (2012-2014), Italy:

      Measurement of complex and freeform shaped parts at elevated temperature (2012-2014). New measuring system for the inspection of freeform shaped parts at elevated temperature, enabling on-line control of geometrical distortions during the production process of high added-value products (e.g. forging of super-alloy turbine blades).  The aim of the project is the development and validation of a measuring system capable to identify the shape and the dimensions of a component immediately after being forged at elevated temperatures, and to monitor its geometrical evolution during cooling in calm air. The measurement system to be developed during this project is a profile measuring system with a scanning operation along the third dimension.

    Publications 

    • Shao Y, Lu B, Chen J, et al. Optimization of forging preforming based on progressive optimization. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2012, 48(22): 65-71 (in Chinese). 
    • Graf, M.; Ullmann, M.; Korpała, G.; Kawalla, R.: Materialkennwerte als Basis für die numerische Simulation von Warmumformprozessen. XXXII. Verformungskundliches Kolloquium, February 23rd-26th 2013, Planneralm, pp. 49-56, ISBN 978-3-902078-18-6                                       
    • Wiesner, J.; Lehmann, G.: Experimentelle Simulation zur Kerndurchschmiedung beim Freiformschmieden. MEFORM 2013, March 20th-22nd, pp. 178-189, ISBN 978-3-86012-449-9                                                   

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    Heat treatment

    Projects

    • Influence of perlite spheroidization on the flow stress and the formability of carbon steels, Institute for Metal Forming (IMF)TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:

      The study had both a process- and a material-related aim. The process-related aim was to determine the influence of varying finish rolling temperatures before annealing, the soft annealing from the rolling heat, the varied cooling rate on isothermal holding temperature, the soft annealing with perlite deformation and the soft annealing with a constant external tensile stress on the reduction of forming forces and increase the formability. The material- related aim was to determine the influence of material conditions on the forming force and the formability. One of the most important findings is that the temporal evolution of the material properties should be considered differently. The process of perlite spheroidization is a time-dependent and time-consuming process. The result (a fully spheroidized perlite in the microstructure) is only reached after several hours of annealing. On the other hand, the characteristic changes in the mechanical properties are produced much faster. Only half an hour at the hold annealing temperature leads to a significant reduction of yield strength and an increase of fracture strain. Mostly the maximum achievable changes in properties are reached after only one hour of the holding at the annealing temperature, although the microstructure is not equivalent to a spheroidized annealed condition. Because these results were obtained under laboratory conditions, the current studies present a review of the results achieved under operational conditions on the example of the steel 23MnB4 in Saarstahl AG and RUIA. The aim is a large-scale optimization of annealing parameters with respect to cost reduction and an evaluation of new parameters for the annealing process. Deformation at elevated temperatures and warm forging with the aim of reducing the forming force and extending  the tool life. The deformation at elevated temperatures and in the warm forging has a series of benefits in comparison with the cold-forming. They result from lower flow stress due to the increasing temperature. Metals and their alloys also exhibit higher formability with increasing temperature. The increase in temperature is not necessarily significant, so that conventional tools in the temperature range of forming of up to 400° C can still be used. A great impact for forming technology can be expected primarily for high-strength steels with a tensile strength of 700 to 1000 MPa without further heat treatment (quenching and tempering). In this way it is possible to extend the life of the forming tools and to improve dimensional accuracy with a comparable surface finish. Furthermore, additional operations such as the straightening of long parts (e.g. cylinder head bolts) can be eliminated. The above mentioned advantages of deformation at elevated temperatures or in the temperature range of warm forging apply only if the mechanical properties of the material during and after the deformation are not affected. The investigations are carried out from the class low carbon bainitic steels using 7MnB8.

    • Integrative process and material development of a hardenable AFP-steel for energy-efficient and distortion- reduced manufacturing for cold formed high-strength massive components, Institute for Metal Forming (IMF) TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:

      The aim is to develop a novel curable AFP steel and its production technology for a steel that is quite soft during cold forming and has a material properties compared to bolts and screws of property class 12.9 after low temperature annealing.

    • Combined casting-forging process by using of an aluminium wrought alloy, Institute for Metal Forming (IMF) TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:

      Due to the continuous development in the automotive industry, where high performance combined with maximum comfort and safety at low car body weight are the primary goals, lightweight construction gains increasing importance. Materials with light weight, high strength and toughness are sought for application. Against this background the material aluminium and its alloys become highly attractive to manufacturers. There are mainly two ways of forming the metal materials: casting or forming. Apart from the substitution of one method by the other there are also (many) examples that combine casting and forging processes in practice. This allows using the advantages of both methods, shortening the process chains and saving energy and resources at the same time. Furthermore, the form flexibility can be increased and the product quality can be improved. For a better process efficiency there should be a direct transition from casting to forging so that the heat loss is reduced and no additional heat treatment between these operations is necessary. There are processes which allow producing the final parts by casting and forging from one single heat. The application of such processes requires materials that have both good casting and forging properties. The Institute for Metal Forming of TU Freiberg works intensively to develop combined casting-forging technologies for lightweight aluminium parts. A technological chain for this coupled process followed by precipitation hardening heat treatment has already been developed. Heat treatable aluminium cast and wrought alloys with 1–7% silicon were used. The optimal cast, forging and hardening properties were achieved by varying the silicon content. This technology with high energy efficiency allows the production of durable light weight parts from aluminium alloys while the mechanical properties of the final parts are equal or even better compared to the conventional processes.

    Publications

    • Hoppach, D.; Guk, S.; Kawalla, R.: Untersuchung von Wärmebehandlungen zur Verbesserung der Kaltumformbarkeit. International conference MEFORM 2012, March 28th-30th 2012, Freiberg, pp. 156-167, ISBN 978-3-86012-434-5                                                   
    • Korpała, G.; Dedov, S.: Untersuchung des Einflusses der Aufheizraten auf das Umformverhalten unterschiedlicher Werkstoffe unter Einsatz der FEM-Simulation. MEFORM 2013, March 20th-22nd, pp. 204-210, ISBN 978-3-86012-449-9                                                   
    • S.H. Kang, H.S. Kim, Y.S. Lee, Heat Treatment Analysis on Crack Generation during Cooling Process of Large-Sized Forged Product, Steel Research                                                    
    • K.H. Jung, D.K. Kim, Y.T. Im, Y.S. Lee, Prediction of the effects of hardening and texture heterogeneities by finite element analysis based on the Taylor model, International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 42, pp. 120-140, 2013.                                                   

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