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New Processes

Please find information, research projects and publications regarding new cold forging processes in this section.

New processes

Projects

  • Development of micro incremental forming technology for metal-based micro functional core components, Korea

Publications

  • Heß, B.; Übelacker, D.; Groche, P.: Numerical Investigation of the Force Reduction in axial Forming by oscillating ram movement. Proceedings of the 6th JSTP International Seminar on Precision Forging, Kyoto, Japan, 2013.                                                   
  • Ibis, M.; Griesheimer, S.; Duschka, A.; Brenneis, M.; Salun, L.; Dörsam, E.; Groche, P.: Integration von elektrischen und elektronischen Komponenten in Strukturbauteile durch Umformen. 11. Umformtechnisches Kolloquium Darmstadt "Flexible Umformtechnik", Darmstadt, Germany, 2012.                                                   
  • GAGLIARDI F., FILICE L., UMBRELLO D., SHIVPURI R., Forging of Metallic Foams to Reproduce Biomechanical Components, Material Science and Engineering – A, Vol. 480/1-2, pp. 510-516.                                               
  • FRANCHITTI S, GIULIANO G, PALUMBO G, SORGENTE D., TRICARICO L., On the optimisation of superplastic free forming test of an AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet, International Journal of Material Forming, Vol. 1 Suppl. 1, 1067 –1070.         
  • T. Pepelnjak, K. Kuzman, I. Kačmarčik, M. Plančak: Recycling of AIMgSi1 aluminium chips by cold compression. Metalurgija (Sisak), 2012, vol. 51, no. 4, pp 509-512                                                   

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Rotary swaging

Projects

  • Integration of smart materials, Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines (PtU) Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany:

    To handle the uncertainty of load-carrying systems safety factors are used for a systematic oversizing during the design process. This causes additional energy consumption and opposes the principle of lightweight construction. Therefore the aim is to produce active components which react to external influences while being used. With incremental bulk forming processes, it is possible to impose forces locally and thus to generate stress in the workpiece at the location where it is required for a joining operation. This ability is needed, in case the properties of the parts to be joined differ strongly. In the project "integration of functional materials in metallic carrying structures" process control is developed to integrate piezoceramics coaxially into tubes. The fusion of carrying structure and smart materials with actuatory and sensory capabilities enables new product architectures and the possibility of a cost-effective production by a joining operation which takes place simultaneously with the manufacturing process. Incremental forming methods in the focus of the studies of this project are roller spinning, rotary swaging and orbital forging. (Contact: M.Sc. Matthias Brenneis)

  • Production of UFG materials by rotary swaging, Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines (PtU) Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany:

    Due to the recent market-driven requirements to reduce the weight of parts and simultaneously the cost of materials, to save energy and environment, the development of high-strength engineering materials has been increasingly gaining importance in the last decades. Taking into account the limitation of natural resources, the production of such materials, especially for the bulk metal forming, without adding costly alloying elements or an additional secondary process such as heat treatment, is a major challenge for the forming industry. This challenge can be met by materials with an ultrafine grain (UFG) structure. Ultrafine grained metals produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes are well known for their outstanding mechanical properties such as a combination of high strength and ductility or improved fatigue strength, which makes them interesting for many technical applications. Despite the broad spectrum of potential applications, the commercial use of such materials was very limited so far. The reason for this lies primarily in the high production costs of the ultra-fine grain (UFG) materials. A new severe plastic deformation method, Equal Channel Angular Swaging (ECAS), has been developed at Technische Universität Darmstadt to produce bulk UFG materials by combining the conventional Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and the incremental forming method rotary swaging. The feasibility of ECAS process is shown with low carbon steels. The strength of the material can be increased about 156% after two processing steps with ECAS. The crucial advantages compared to conventional ECAP are a significant reduction of friction and axial forces plus the potential to be extended to continuous processing. Thus, ECAS has high potential for a cost-efficient production of bulk UFG materials. (Contact: M.Sc. Okan Görtan)

Publications

  • Groche, P.; Brenneis, M.; Görtan, O.; Schmitt, S. O.: Recent Developments in Incremental Bulk Forming. Proceedings of the 6th JSTP International Seminar on Precision Forging, Kyoto, Japan, 2013.                                              

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Bar extrusion

Bar extrusion

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Sheet bulk metal forming

Projects

  • Process combination for manufacturing of teethed, thin-walled functional components out of tailored blanks, Institute of Manufacturing Technology (LFT) Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg:

Subproject A1, Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TR73 (www.tr-73.de) The vision of the transregional collaborative research centre Transregio 73 (www.tr-73.de) is in the second project phase the manufacturing of sheet metal components with the integration of diverse features of increasing complexity. A fundamental process understanding of manufacturing cyclic symmetric tailored blanks with defined characteristics and their further processing to functional components shall be built up. Based on the single-stage process combination of deep-drawing and upsetting it has to be investigated, how features of different geometrical characteristic, like open carriers or gear teeth, interact during the forming process. As an additional feature, the manufacturing process of a so called closed carrier is investigated. The allocation of material volume requires a high local increase of sheet metal thickness and is a challenge for manufacturing the semi-finished products and their further processing. For the production of process adapted semi-finished products a specifically designed rolling machine is used, whereas the cyclic symmetric semi-finished products demand new rolling strategies compared to rotational symmetric ones. An alternative to rolling is orbital forming. Compared to the previously investigated upsetting process of the first project phase, orbital forming enables high formability at low forming forces due to the cyclic forming character with locally limited forming zone. Another aspect is the consideration of thermal and mechanical cutting operations on semi-finished products and finished parts. The influence of the cutting edge on the process combination of deep-drawing and upsetting has to be analyzed, as the forming force for the final forming operation is initiated vertically to the cutting surface which thus, is heavily subjected to plastic deformation.

  • Forming of complex functional elements on sheet metal, Institute of Manufacturing Technology (LFT) Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany:

    Subproject A2, Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TR73 (www.tr-73.de) Objective of the subproject A2 is a fundamental analysis of the effects and interactions between the workpiece and the forming zone in sheet-bulk metal forming. Exemplified by a teeth-forming process, the complex interaction between regions of high and low strains have been investigated by sensitivity analyses. In the second phase the examination will be extended to research the mutual interaction of geometrically different structures on the material flow. For that purpose appropiate cavities will be systematically selected and subsequently investigated by the use of statistical methods in simulations as well as in experiments. By this, an advanced understanding of the process is achieved, which will finally lead to the development of appropriate methods with the objective to control the forming operation. In addition to this, the tooling system will be improved with respect to the expected extraordinary stress situation due to the asymmetrical material flow.

  • Constitutive friction law for the description and optimization of tailored surfaces, Institute of Manufacturing Technology (LFT) Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany:

    Subproject C1, Collaborative Research Centre SFB/TR73 (www.tr-73.de) The aim of the project, jointly processed by the Chair of Applied Mechanics (LTM) and the LFT, is to investigate and to enhance the tribological conditions within sheet-bulk metal forming (SBMF). Further the constitutive friction law for this new class of forming processes, developed by the LTM has to be improved. This friction law has to be validated with experimental investigations at the LFT. Having shown in the first phase of the project that tailored surfaces are able to improve the material flow in SBMF, the aim of the second phase is to determine the fields of applications in different forming process and to understand mechanisms for the development of a targeted design process for tailored surfaces. Also new lubrication systems are going to be qualified for the use within SBMF.

Publications

  • Koch, J.; Merklein, M.: Cold forging of closely-tolerated functional components out of blanks – possibilities of the new process class sheet-bulk metal forming. In: Ishikawa, T. (Edt.): Proceedings of the 6th JSTP International Seminar on Precision Forging, 2013, Kyoto, Japan, 109-112                                                   
  • Opel, S.; Schneider, T.; Merklein, M.: Manufacturing of geared sheet metal components using flexible rolled tailored blanks. Key Engineering Materials, 554-557(2013), 1459-1470                                                   
  • Schneider, T.; Merklein, M.: Manufacturing of geared sheet metal components by a single-stage Sheet-bulk metal forming process. In: Proc. of COMA 13, (2013), Stellenbosch, South Africa: ISBN Nr: 978-0-7972-1405-7, 177-182                                                   

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Combined processes

Projects

  • Manufacturing Error-free Goods at First Time, Institute of Manufacturing Technology (LFT) Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany:

    The EU-project MEGaFiT (Manufacturing Error-free Goods at First Try) sets its goal in the reduction of the number of defects, and consequently costs, in manufacturing of complex high-precision metal parts. This will be achieved by developing and integrating in-depth process knowledge, in-line measurement and real-time adaptive process control. This method will be applied to two different production technologies: additive manufacturing and multi-step microforming. Within this project, the Chair of Manufacturing Technology is focusing on simulative and experimental studies of a microcoining process which is part of the multi-step microforming. The main achievements of the first half of the project consist in the detailed design of the microcoining step and of its FE model. By the integration of each step of the microforming process it was also possible to study their interactions. Based on multiple material characterization tests, a complex material model was developed, ensuring high reliability of the simulations. The resulting process knowledge allows the identification of the critical parameters which can be adjusted by the control system in mass production.

  • Combined casting-forging process by using of an aluminium wrought alloy, Institute for Metal Forming IMF) TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:

    Due to the continuous development in the automotive industry, where high performance combined with maximum comfort and safety at low car body weight are the primary goals, lightweight construction gains increasing importance. Materials with light weight, high strength and toughness are sought for application. Against this background the material aluminium and its alloys become highly attractive to manufacturers. There are mainly two ways of forming the metal materials: casting or forming. Apart from the substitution of one method by the other there are also (many) examples that combine casting and forging processes in practice. This allows using the advantages of both methods, shortening the process chains and saving energy and resources at the same time. Furthermore, the form flexibility can be increased and the product quality can be improved. For a better process efficiency there should be a direct transition from casting to forging so that the heat loss is reduced and no additional heat treatment between these operations is necessary. There are processes which allow producing the final parts by casting and forging from one single heat. The application of such processes requires materials that have both good casting and forging properties. The Institute for Metal Forming of TU Freiberg works intensively to develop combined casting-forging technologies for lightweight aluminium parts. A technological chain for this coupled process followed by precipitation hardening heat treatment has already been developed. Heat treatable aluminium cast and wrought alloys with 1–7% silicon were used. The optimal cast, forging and hardening properties were achieved by varying the silicon content. This technology with high energy efficiency allows the production of durable light weight parts from aluminium alloys while the mechanical properties of the final parts are equal or even better compared to the conventional processes.

  • Development of the unified casting-forging technology (2013-2018), Korea:

    by progressive solidification control method for manufacturing net shape aluminum alloy parts with 90% yield and 400 MPa tensile strength

Publications

  • Dedov, S.; Lehmann, G.; Kawalla, R.: Application of Combined Casting-Forging Process for Production of Durable Lightweight Aluminum Parts. Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 554-557, pp. 263-274, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.554-557.264   

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