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Raw material

Please find information, research projects and publications regarding raw material in this section.

Raw Material


  • Effect of stacking fault energy on mechanical behavior of cold-forging Cu and Cu alloys,  Kunming University of Science and Technology, China:

    Cu and different Cu–Mn alloys were prepared by cold-forging. The deformation behavior of Cu–Mn alloys is consistent with the Cu-Al alloys and Cu–Zn alloys but without lowering the stacking fault energy to simultaneously increases the strength and ductility. A series of analysis demonstrate that Cu–Mn alloys have a much smaller twin density than low stacking fault energy (SFE) metals, and dislocation strengthening is the major reason for the higher strength.
  • Bulk metal forming at elevated temperatures – Extrusion of steel between room temperature and 500°C, Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) University of Stuttgart / Germany – Status report July 2013:

    Metal forming of coated aluminum and steel raw material within temperature range below 500 °C provides numerous advantages compared to established cold and warm forming processes under economic conditions. Such temperature range below blue brittleness between 300 °C and 500 °C for e.g. steel alloys, which is characterised by a high ductility and low yield stress, in this project is of particular interest. In addition to an increase of formability forming at elevated temperatures a notice­able decrease of tool load and an increase of tool life time respectively is observed. To gain a deeper understanding of forming processes at elevated temperatures this study is based on the three work packages: tribology, technological material properties and process investigations. End of work might be expected end of year 2013.

  • Development of new equipment to improve the cutting quality in high-speed cutting process, Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) University of Stuttgart / Germany – Status report July 2013:

    Motivation of project was derived from recent demands raised by manufacturers of cold forged components in terms of required precise micro shape of cut surface of raw material e.g. wire. Today in industry any compensation of geometrical derivation (burr and edge entering) is hard to achieve, therefore an up-setting process normally is used. To improve the cutting quality and evenness of raw material cut surface is the aim of this development. Researches focus on high-speed cutting, which belongs to chipless cutting methods. In the shearing zone the material will be separated by two blades which move fairly quickly relatively to each other’s. The aim of this process is to manufacture raw products which can be used in the following process steps without any post-processing. The scope of this work is to develop a new equipment for the high-speed cutting process, which should stabilize the work piece clamping situation and also being able to transfer additional forces (tensile-, torsional- and bending stress) in order to improve shearing process. Such superposition can reduce the burr height and may minimize the edge entering to render setting process unnecessary.

  • Combined casting-forging process by using of an aluminium wrought alloy, Institute for Metal Forming TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany:

    Due to the continuous development in the automotive industry, where high performance combined with maximum comfort and safety at low car body weight are the primary goals, lightweight construction gains increasing importance. Materials with light weight, high strength and toughness are sought for application. Against this background the material aluminium and its alloys become highly attractive to manufacturers. There are mainly two ways of forming the metal materials: casting or forming. Apart from the substitution of one method by the other there are also (many) examples that combine casting and forging processes in practice. This allows using the advantages of both methods, shortening the process chains and saving energy and resources at the same time. Furthermore, the form flexibility can be increased and the product quality can be improved. For a better process efficiency there should be a direct transition from casting to forging so that the heat loss is reduced and no additional heat treatment between these operations is necessary. There are processes which allow producing the final parts by casting and forging from one single heat. The application of such processes requires materials that have both good casting and forging properties. The Institute for Metal Forming of TU Freiberg works intensively to develop combined casting-forging technologies for lightweight aluminium parts. A technological chain for this coupled process followed by precipitation hardening heat treatment has already been developed. Heat treatable aluminium cast and wrought alloys with 1–7% silicon were used. The optimal cast, forging and hardening properties were achieved by varying the silicon content. This technology with high energy efficiency allows the production of durable light weight parts from aluminium alloys while the mechanical properties of the final parts are equal or even better compared to the conventional processes.

  • Development of casted and forged work-roll for metal rolling (2010-2013), Korea

  • Development of the unified casting-forging technology (2013-2018), Korea:

    by progressive solidification control method for manufacturing net shape aluminum alloy parts with 90% yield and 400 MPa tensile strength.


  • M. Terčelj, M. Fazarinc, G. Kugler, I. Peruš: Influence of the chemical composition and process parameters on the mechanical properties of an extruded aluminium alloy for highly loaded structural parts. Constr. build. mater.. [Print ed.], 2013, vol. 44, pp 781-791                                                   

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